An elective abortion is a personal decision to end pregnancy with the help of medical procedure. Miscarriage is a spontaneous abortion that occurs naturally and it may be caused by accident or trauma. There are two types of induce abortion used to end different stages of pregnancy, medical abortion and surgical abortion.
Medical abortion is used within the first 7 weeks of pregnancy which includes medical combination such as RU-486 (Mifeprex) and Misoprostol, or Methotrexate and Misoprostol. Medical abortion provides privacy for patient and less invasive without surgery. A doctor visit and physical exam is required for medical elective abortion.
Surgical abortion can be used after 6 weeks of pregnancy which includes surgical procedure such as Suction Aspiration or Dilation and Evacuation. The surgical procedure used depends on the stages of the pregnancy and it can also be used to remove fetal tissues not expel completely from medical elective abortion.
RU-486 (Mifeprex) and Misoprostol
RU-486 (Mifeprex) and Misoprostol are combination oral drugs that
induces abortion and is effective within the first 7 weeks of
pregnancy. RU-486 also known as Mifepristone works by blocking the
hormone progesterone that weakens the uterus lining and prevent embryo
implanting in your uterus. RU-486 also helps to soften and dilate the
Taking RU-486 alone may or may not cause the uterus to contract and expel the fetus. If uterus contraction does not occur after few days of taking RU-486, you will need to take misoprostol that causes the uterus to contract and expel the fetus. Some of the side effects from the combination drugs may include headache, cramping, nausea, vomiting, heavy bleeding, and diarrhea.
Methotrexate and Misoprostol
Methotrexate and Misoprostol are combination drugs that induce abortion and are effective within the first 7 weeks of pregnancy. Methotrexate is taken orally or administer by injection and it also works by preventing embryo from implanting in your uterus. After 5 to 7 days you will need to take misoprostol that causes the uterus to contract and expel the fetus.
Misoprostol is taken orally or through vaginal insertion and it also helps to soften and dilate the cervix. Some of the side effects from the combination drugs may include headache, cramping, nausea, vomiting, heavy bleeding, chill, and diarrhea. This combination is not commonly used because it is less effective than combination of RU-486 (Mifeprex) and Misoprostol.
Suction Aspiration (Suction Curettage or Vacuum Aspiration)
Suction aspiration is a surgical procedure used to induce abortion between 6 to 14 weeks of pregnancy. A local anesthetic is injected into your cervix to control the pain. A synthetic dilator or laminaria (compressed seaweed) is used to slowly dilate the cervix. A small hollow plastic tube attached to a suction aspirator is inserted into the uterus and the fetal tissues are suction out.
This procedure of elective abortion is performed by physician at hospital and the entire process may take about 10 minutes. Some of the risks associated with the procedure may include uterine infection, hemorrhage, damage to the cervix, and may cause scar tissue.
Dilation and Evacuation (D and E)
Dilation and evacuation is a surgical procedure used to induce abortion between 15 to 21 weeks of pregnancy. This procedure of elective abortion involved the use of general anesthesia, forceps, curette, and suction aspirator. A synthetic dilator or laminaria (compressed seaweed) is used to slowly dilate the cervix 24 hours before the abortion.
During abortion the cervix is opened wider as the fetus has grown larger. A forceps may be used to remove the fetus. A curette (metal instrument) is used to scrape the wall of the uterus. A suction aspirator is used to suction out remaining fetal tissues.
A compound known as prostaglandin and a solution of saline or urea can also be used to induce abortion during this stage of pregnancy. Prostaglandin and the solution can be injected into the amniotic sac that causes the uterus to contract and expel the fetus.
Miscarriage is a spontaneous abortion that occurs naturally when the fetus is expel from the uterus during early pregnancy. Most miscarriage occurs within the first 13 weeks of pregnancy. The most common causes of miscarriage may include damage to the cervix, abnormal uterus, rejection of abnormal fetus, diabetes, chronic kidney inflammation, cocaine use, infection, and emotional shock.
Women with early miscarriage may experience heavy bleeding.
Women with late miscarriage may experience cramping and heavy bleeding.
Women who experience one miscarriage don’t mean she is likely to
experience another miscarriage in future.
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